What Is Tribulus Terrestris
Tribulus Terrestris is a small adaptogenic plant that is recognized by its yellow flowers. Being a sun-loving tropical perennial plant, it grows especially in Saharan Africa and in the subtropical and desert regions around the world, including India, China, Mexico, and Bulgaria.  
The plant has a composition rich in active compounds, none other than phytosterols (plant sterols), alkaloids (Tribulusterin), and steroids. In addition, the plant also contains natural antioxidants and flavonoids, which contribute to our cardiovascular health.
But that's not all. Tribulus Terrestris consists of many active ingredients, including saponins and amines.
Finally, Tribulus contains protodioscin (Saponosides), one of the most active ingredients of Tribulus. It is to this singular composition that the plant owes its international fame. 
The science behind its effectiveness
According to researchers, the active compounds found in Tribulus work through several mechanisms. The steroidal saponin protodioscin, for instance, is believed to be responsible for the plant's libido-enhancing effects. It acts as an aphrodisiac, increasing sexual activity and blood flow to the sexual organs by boosting nitric oxide. 
Other active compounds in Tribulus, such as tribulosin and tribulusamides, are being investigated for their effects on inflammation and the survival of healthy cells exposed to stress. The concentration of these compounds may vary in different formulations. 
Read more about BrainTea benefits.
Tribulus Terrestris Benefits
1- Improves Sexual Function
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), also known as sexual dysfunction, is a condition that reduces a person's interest in sexual activity. It can lead to distress and relationship issues and affects up to 30% of women and 15% of men.
Supplements, along with lifestyle and psychological interventions, are sometimes considered by doctors as an option to help treat HSDD. Tribulus is a potential supplement option for both sexes.
The chemical and pharmacological analysis of Tribulus Terrestris revealed the importance of this herb in improving sexual function. The saponins it contains especially protodioscin, diosgenin, and dioscin, imitate certain hormones in the body and can influence the production of sex hormones.
These saponins act on the luteinizing hormone secreted in the brain which stimulates the production of testosterone in the testicles in men and regulates the secretion of progesterone and estrogen in women. 
In this way, Tribulus acts on various sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction in men. Erectile dysfunction is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to maintain a sufficiently rigid erection.
In a study carried out on 180 men aged between 18 and 65 and suffering from erectile disorders, the administration of Tribulus Terrestris improved sexual function in addition to having an aphrodisiac action. 
On the other hand, a study has shown that Tribulus improves sperm parameters by increasing sperm motility, number, and speed of sperm motility. Tribulus Terrestris therefore also has an action against male infertility. 
2 - Improves Blood Sugar Control
Tribulus Terrestris may improve blood sugar control by increasing insulin secretion. Insulin helps transport glucose from the bloodstream into the body's cells to be used for energy or stored for later use. Studies have shown that Tribulus Terrestris may stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, helping to lower blood sugar levels. 
Another mechanism by which Tribulus Terrestris may improve blood sugar control is by increasing glucose uptake in the body's cells. Tribulus Terrestris may increase glucose uptake in the body's cells by activating certain cellular signaling pathways involved in glucose uptake.
One study found that taking a Tribulus Terrestris supplement each day significantly reduced blood sugar levels in women with type 2 diabetes compared to a placebo after three months. 
3 - Boosts Heart Health
Studies showed that saponins of Tribulus Terrestris can play a role in dilating coronary arteries and improving coronary circulation.
Tribulus is also helpful in reducing symptoms of angina or chest pain. A study found that Tribulus could relieve cases of angina with a total efficacy rate of 82.3%. It achieved these results by dilating coronary arteries and improving cardiac circulation. The researchers also found that Tribulus did not harm the liver or kidneys and had no side effects. 
Tribulus also protects the myocardium.  Studies demonstrated this cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia by protecting myocardial cells and reducing the mortality rate of these cells induced by oxidative stress.
Also, the antihypertensive properties of Tribulus Terrestris extracts have been demonstrated in hypertensive subjects. 
Here are three extra benefits of tribulus to consider:
1- Shows Anti-inflammatory Effect
Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to injury or infection. However, when it becomes chronic, it can lead to a range of health problems, such as arthritis and cardiovascular disease.
Tribulus Terrestris contains several bioactive compounds, such as saponins, flavonoids, and alkaloids, that exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. These compounds work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which play a key role in the inflammatory response. 
Several studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Tribulus Terrestris. One study showed that an extract of Tribulus Terrestris inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in human immune cells. 
Moreover, research has shown that Tribulus Terrestris has antioxidant properties, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects. Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of inflammation, and antioxidants can help reduce inflammation by neutralizing free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. 
2- Improves Physical Performance
Gitonin is a certain saponin that is found in Tribulus Terrestris. It has a chemical structure similar to testosterone and mimics the effects of testosterone on the human body. 
As testerone acts on muscle growth and improves performance. Tribulus extracts may have positive effect in gaining muscle mass and improving physical performance.
3- Reduces symptoms related to Menopause
Tribulus Terrestris is used as a treatment for menopausal symptoms in women, including libido.
A study on 60 postmenopausal women with sexual disorders showed that after 90-day treatment, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of Tribulus in improving desire, arousal, sexual interest, and vaginal lubrication. 
Safety And Side Effects
There are no toxic effects of Tribulus Terrestris. However, this plant is not recommended for pregnant women and children.
Although there are some potential side effects, they are relatively minor and may include experiencing weakness or shakiness, an upset stomach, and difficulty sleeping.
Tribulus Terrestris is a plant with great medicinal potential that has been used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicines for thousands of years.
Tribulus offers various benefits such as promoting heart health, enhancing sexual function, managing blood sugar levels, exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties, enhancing physical performance, and alleviating symptoms associated with menopause.
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Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris - PMC (nih.gov)
Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions - PubMed (nih.gov)
A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris - PMC (nih.gov)
Clinical Assessment of Tribulus terrestris Extract in the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction - PMC (nih.gov)
(PDF) Effect of Tribulus terrestris against Inflammatory Bowel Disease (researchgate.net)
Physiology, Luteinizing Hormone - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf (nih.gov)
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Tribulus terrestris in male sexual dysfunction-A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - PubMed (nih.gov)
Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro - PubMed (nih.gov)
Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition - PubMed (nih.gov)
Efficacy of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus terrestris on the Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile of Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - PubMed (nih.gov)
[406 cases of angina pectoris in coronary heart disease treated with saponin of Tribulus terrestris]. - Abstract - Europe PMC
Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential - PubMed (nih.gov)
Vascular protective effects of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris on hypertensive endothelial injury - PubMed (nih.gov)
Anti-inflammatory effect of tribulusamide D isolated from Tribulus terrestris in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages - PMC (nih.gov)
Tribulus terrestris L. Extract Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in RAW 264.7 Macrophage and Zebrafish via Inhibition of Akt/MAPKs and NF-κB/iNOS-NO Signaling Pathways (hindawi.com)
Effect of Tribulus terrestris L. supplementation on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Markers: A Pilot Study - PubMed (nih.gov)
Selected herbals and human exercise performance - PubMed (nih.gov)
Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women - PubMed (nih.gov)